The Geometry of Parallel Grafts in the Iliac Arteries

The development of metachronous common iliac artery aneurysm, or progression of them, after prior treatment with EVAR (endovascular aneurysm repair), particularly with “bell bottoming” is typically treated with coil embolization of the internal iliac artery and extension of the stent graft into the external iliac artery. While CH-EVAR has been in the news with the recent results from the PERICLES registry, I have never been entirely convinced of its durability. That is different in the case of building parallel grafts in an iliac limb of an EVAR graft (reference).

Here, the geometries, thrombosis, and forces combine to make gutter flow and endoleak unlikely. Choosing the right size of stent grafts to channel to the external and internal iliacs seems to be a challenge, but is easily solved by this scheme -which I can’t claim as my own, but was thought up by a surgeon in upstate New York who choses to remain anonymous.*

The diameter of the stent graft to be sealed to is measured and an area calculated. The sum of the areas of the two grafts to be placed need to equal or slightly exceed the area of this inflow stent graft. If you have decided the size of the external iliac graft, for example, then the diameter of other graft is merely a few geometric formulas away.

Here is a table that can be helpful in avoiding those formulas.
diameter area table.jpegThe inflow graft area is taken from its measured diameter. Then usually one or the other artery has an obligate size -a size the graft has to be while the other has more “wiggle room.” The other thing that comes from experience is that the AFX graft’s iliac limb extension don’t get the B-infolding that can affect an oversized stent graft placed in a small artery and it accomodates a neighbor well.measurement_3

For example, take this patient who after EVAR of aortic aneurysm with AFX developed metachronous dilatation of the common iliac artery to 3.9cm with abdominal pain. The average diameter is 18.5mm. From the table, that rounds to 19mm corresponding to 283.53 square mm. If the internal iliac artery requires a 13mm graft, that is 132.73 square mm, the difference being 150.80 square mm. That corresponds to a 14mm diameter graft, but a slightly larger graft is preferred for oversizing. The external iliac artery is 8mm, and putting a 13mm Viabahn (largest available) in that would result in the B-infolding in the 8mm external iliac. Here, I bailed myself out by simply placing a 20mm AFX iliac limb extension, which by virtue of its design is resistent to infolding and tolerant of parallel grafts laid alongside in constricted channels. I found that the AFX iliac limb, a 20-13mm x 88mm length extension well suited for this.

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The AFX graft limb seems to adapt to the presence of the parallel “sandwich” graft which is deployed second and ballooned last. In followup, there was shrinkage of the common iliac artery aneurysm sac and no endoleak.

postop_1

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Compared to my other parallel graft case treating a metachronous saccular common iliac aneurysm years after an EVAR with a Gore endograft (link), which by table calculation, resulted in 8% oversize in calculated areas, this particular technique with a large AFX graft and an appropriately sized Viabahn seemed to work well the setting of a previously placed AFX graft. It allows one to avoid hypogastric occlusion.

The final option of a femoral or external iliac to internal iliac bypass after extension across the bifurcation to the external iliac artery is still a reasonable choice, although it seems to be receding into history.

Reference

Smith, Mitchell T. et al. “Preservation of Internal Iliac Arterial Flow during Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair Using the ‘Sandwich’ Technique.” Seminars in Interventional Radiology 30.1 (2013): 82–86. PMC. Web. 9 Dec. 2016.

*While these grafts are not FDA approved for use in this manner, many times, with a prior endograft or graft in place, using the currently available and approved Gore Iliac Branch Endoprosthesis (IBE) in this common scenario would still be off label usage of an approved device, and only if it is feasible, which most times is not. For nonmedical readers, many commonly available devices and medications are used off-label, such as aspirin for blood thinning.

Parallel Grafts in the iliac bifurcation -an option at least until branched grafts become commercially available

CTA_1

This patient had developed metachronous common iliac artery aneurysms after aorto-bi-iliac graft placement of a AAA a decade ago. This is not infrequent occurence in a significant number of patients with aneurysmal degeneration seen in the thoracic or visceral segment abdominal aorta, iliac arteries, and popliteal arteries, years after a primary AAA repair. The patients are often older than they were at the original repair, with concomitant risk factors, and so a minimally invasive option is preferred.

Right CIAA -vulnerable tissue

saccular r ciaa

The teaching during my fellowship was that aorto-iliac bypasses for aneurysmal disease were to be taken to the iliac bifurcation to go around vulnerable tissues. These tissues vulnerable to aneurysmal degeneration were infrarenal aorta up to the renal artery origins, common iliac and internal iliac arteries, and popliteal arteries. An anastomosis to the iliac bifurcation however normal appearing may degenerate given enough time. This patient developed a saccular aneurysm on the right iliac bifurcation and a small internal iliac artery aneurysm (1.5cm).

CTA_2

This was treated with coil embolization and stent graft from the right iliac limb to the external iliac artery.

RCIAA treatment

This is the standard endovascular therapy for common iliac artery aneurysms, and acceptable in the setting of unilateral disease, and in a staged fashion has been considered acceptable for bilateral disease, acknowledging there is a 10-40% incidence of buttock claudication and when the contralateral hypogastric is occluded or when the patient is diabetic, the risk of buttock or colorectal necrosis is not insignificant. The patient had transiently some buttock claudication and hip and thigh neuralgia with walking but this improved in the weeks leading up to treating his left common iliac artery aneurysm.

Left CIAA

The left common iliac artery bifurcation is sometimes challenging to access from a midline incision and exposure requiring a separate sigmoid mobilization. In men, the narrow pelvis can increase the challenge, so it is without fault that sometimes common iliac artery is left behind. This is what became aneurysmal, developing into a 3.0cm fusiform aneurysm beyond the left limb of the graft.

CTA_6

The internal iliac artery had a moderate 50-75% stenosis at its origin but was not aneurysmal, and I chose to revascularize this. The patient was sexually active and walked for exercise. My options included proceeding with left hypogastric embolization and stent grafting, mirroring the right but with a significant risk for buttock claudication, sexual dysfunction, and a small risk for colorectal ischemia. Other option is an external iliac or common femoral to internal iliac artery bypass which is an excellent option in good risk patients.

Endovascular options

Iliac branched stent grafts are undergoing trial. My center is participating in both available industrial FDA approval trials (disclosure, I am site PI for the Gore trial), but this patient’s presentation and anatomy exclude him from the trials. The final option is placing a parallel stent grafts -one to the internal iliac artery and the other to the external iliac artery from a large common iliac stent graft. While not ideal, until branched grafts become available, this remains a viable option. The principle is to size the grafts to minimize potential gutters between the grafts, and have long seal zones to minimize the impact of the gutters. Access from two points is required to get two grafts into position. With the acute angle of the aortobi-iliac graft, up and over access is generally not possible. The 10mm Viabahn graft that I chose to place in the hypogastric requires a 12Fr sheath, which cannot be placed from the brachial artery, so I prepped for an axillary cutdown. The left common femoral access was percutaneous.

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The left CFA access allowed placement of a 16mmx10cm Excluder iliac graft limb to cover the aneurysm down to the iliac bifurcation. The left axillary arterial cutdown access allowed placement of a 12Fr sheath (Flexor) to allow access of the left internal iliac artery and safe delivery of a 10mm Viabahn stent graft. The left external iliac artery was sealed with a 13mm Viabahn stent graft that was deployed simultaneously. Ballooning was performed to both.

Completion
Completion

No leak was seen. The axillary access was repaired directly and the CFA access was repaired with two Perclose S devices.

Discussion

Despite initial acceptance of bilateral hypogastric occlusion, even staged, it can be the cause of significant disability aside from buttock claudication, which sometimes does not remit with exercise. Ischemia of the pelvis can drive a plexopathy that can result in motor and sensory neuropathy and disability. Death can occur. Preserving one of the hypogastrics can go a long way to preventing these complications, and everyone eagerly awaits adding iliac branched grafts to the armamentarium.

The Parallel Bar -higher than you’d think

eye tiger big

At last week’s Veith Symposium, there was a straw poll for parallel grafts versus fenestrated stent grafts in emergent setting, and the results were a populist parallelist majority. This is clearly the result of years of inability to access this technology and reflects market forces making the decision over careful science. There are clear examples of this in the past -the adoption of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and appendectomy, done without randomized control trials shows that RCT’s be damned, people and surgeons will get what they want.

eyetiger1

The several presentations on parallel grafts caught my eye. First was the Eye of the Tiger technique which sounds like a kung-fu move. Presented by Dr. David Minion of the University of Kentucky, the gist of it is that the gutters created by parallel grafts can be obviated by reshaping the branch grafts from circles to lenticular shapes (illustration). The sequence of moves is to deploy a balloon expandable stent graft outside of the main graft and deploy it, then deflate the balloon. The aortic graft is then ballooned, crushing the branch graft. With the balloon inflated, the branch graft is then inflated, now taking a lenticular configuration. This, I will put in my tool box.

Bullfrog catheter tracking (top) and inflated for infusion (botton) with needle out.
Bullfrog catheter tracking (top) and inflated for infusion (botton) with needle out.

The other presentation was on the bullfrog catheter, by Dr. Christopher Owen of UCSF. It inflates to press the catheter portion of it in the middle of the length of the balloon against the stent graft wall. A penetrating needle then comes out through the graft material, allowing for infusion of a sealing embolic material. This has not been tried in humans but application in an animal model is ongoing.

The first time I saw Nellix, this is what I thought...
The first time I saw Nellix, this is what I thought…

I have a feeling parallel grafts will be with us for a while. Using these in conjunction with the Nellix graft, juxtarenal aortic aneurysms were treated, which brings me to think that with the inevitable progression of paravisceral segment aneurysm disease, we will be seeing secondary endobags (not a pejorative) for treatment of paravisceral aortic aneurysms with parallel grafts, and we will see something like this on CT scans one day (illustration). Mr. Ian Loftus of St. George’s Vascular Institute reported on 19 patients (11 single, 5 double, 3 triple branch) over 12 months who were unsuitable for OR/EVAR solutions, treated with 100% technical success, one type I endoleak. Dr. Michel Reijnen presented the Arnhem experience with this technique. Their series included 7 patients with juxta (5) or para (2) renal AAA’s (4 single, 2 double). He reported 100% chimney graft patency and no reinterventions in short followup. He presented a case of rupture, but warned that further investigation would be needed before using the endobag for rAAA.

I think that the whole issue points to several truths. Paravisceral and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms have always been viewed with trepidation and this generally caused referral of these cases to high volume centers and surgeons during the open era. Experience with EVAR has infused a sense of confidence and with mastery of infrarenal EVAR and basic endovascular interventions, most practitioners feel ready to offer an endovascular solution to the visceral segment AAA’s, but feel locked out either through lack of training or inability to access the devices, particularly not having ready solutions on the shelf. These parallel graft systems offer relative ease of delivery and use readily available components. Even I have resorted to parallel grafts in an emergency with acceptable short term result (patient lived) but with uncertainty with durability.

I think that there will never be a completely satisfactory off the shelf, “every-surgeon” solution because these patients are no less complex when approached with endovascular technique -they just present a different set of equally difficult challenges. As in open repair of these complex aortic aneurysms, endovascular repair of these should aggregate to high volume practices and centers with deep experience.